History 2493 Chapter 16 Practice Quiz

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1: By the mid-1840s, the American West
contained few migrants from the United States.
was extensively populated.
had seen the elimination of nearly all Indian tribes.
closely resembled its popular image.
2: Which of the following Indian tribes was NOT found on the Pacific coast of the Far West?
3: In the mid-nineteenth century, the Plains Indians were
the most widespread Indian groups in the West.
not as vulnerable to disease as eastern tribes.
among the least aggressive of all American Indians.
mostly sedentary farmers.
4: Which tribe should NOT be included among the Plains Indians?
the Chumash
the Sioux
the Arapaho
the Pawnee
5: Which of the following statements regarding Hispanic New Mexico is FALSE?
At the time of the Mexican War, Hispanics greatly outnumbered Anglo-Americans.
The Spanish had settlements in the area since the seventeenth century.
Taos Indians, allied with Navajo and Apaches, forced out Anglo-Americans until 1847.
Military victories by the U.S. Army led to a large increase in Hispanic migration.
6: During the 1840s, Hispanics living in California
lost ownership of large areas of lands.
saw an expansion in the power of californios.
attempted to revive the Spanish mission society.
joined with white Americans to drive out Indians.
7: During the nineteenth century, in the Far West the term “coolie”
was a description for all Asian immigrants.
referred to Chinese indentured servants.
applied to all non-Indians who came to the Far West before the California gold rush.
was a slang term for prostitutes in mining towns.
8: In the 1840s and 1850s, in the Far West, the response by white Americans to the Chinese
moved from initial opposition to them to gradual acceptance.
was one of consistent acceptance.
was one of consistent opposition.
moved from initial acceptance of them to gradual opposition.
9: The Chinese from California became the major source of labor for the transcontinental railroad because
they had no other employment prospects.
they worked for lower wages than what whites would accept.
most were experienced in railroad construction.
most were forced into working for the railroads.
10: In the 1870s, in the Far West the largest single Chinese community was located in
San Francisco.
Los Angeles.
11: Chinese “tongs” were
secret societies.
Chinese community officials.
12: The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
resulted in the deportation of half of the Chinese in the United States.
was ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
banned Chinese in the United States from becoming naturalized citizens.
was only applied in California.
13: The Homestead Act of 1862
gave without condition 160 acres to all settlers who would move to the West.
was expanded by the Timber Culture Act.
saw settlers on the Plains complain the claims were too large for grain farming.
proved to be enormously popular with western ranchers.
14: By 1900, one of the three American territories that had not been granted statehood was
15: In the second half of the nineteenth century, the working class in the western economy was
highly multiracial.
highly divided along racial lines.
both A and B
neither A nor B
16: In the late nineteenth century, which of the following was NOT a major western industry?
fur trading.
commercial farming.
17: Mining in the west
produced the region’s first economic boom.
flourished until the 1930s.
saw corporations move in first, followed by individual prospectors.
kept ranchers and farmers from establishing their own economic base
18: The Comstock Lode primarily produced
19: Women in nineteenth-century western mining towns
were nearly all single when they first arrived.
had few economic opportunities outside of prostitution.
often found work doing domestic tasks.
generally worked as miners.
20: The western cattle industry saw Mexican ranchers first develop
all of the above
21: In the 1860s, cattle drives from Texas to Missouri
saw the herds suffer heavy losses.
proved that cattle could be driven to distant markets.
both A and B
neither A nor B
22: After the Civil War, cattle driven on the Chisholm Trail ended the journey in
Sedalia, Missouri.
Abilene, Kansas.
Dallas, Texas.
Omaha, Nebraska.
23: In the late nineteenth century, “Range wars” in the West were between
white Americans and Indians.
white Americans and Mexicans.
white American ranchers and farmers.
Individual white American ranchers and large American ranching corporations
24: In the 1880s, the open range cattle industry declined as a result of
Indian wars.
competition from Mexico.
25: In the late nineteenth century, the popular image of the American West
presented a heroic image of cowboys.
perceived the region to be a place offering true freedom.
both A and B
neither A nor B
26: The “Rocky Mountain School” of painting
marked a sharp departure from the artistic style of the Hudson River Valley painters.
helped inspire a growth of tourism in the West.
emphasized the primitive art of Indians and other indigenous peoples.
first gained popular acceptance in the early twentieth century.
27: In Owen Wister’s novel, The Virginian (1902), the American cowboy was
portrayed as a simple and virtuous frontiersman.
lamented as having lost his innocence and decency.
seen as fast disappearing as urbanization spread west.
criticized for being too quick to use violence.
28: William Cody’s Wild West shows
showed the realities of life on the frontier.
proved to be popular in Europe as well as the United States.
did not include representations of Indians.
ignored the fact that Cody had never actually lived in the West himself.
29: All of the following writers and artists made significant contributions to the romanticizing of the American West EXCEPT
Frederic Remington.
Mark Twain.
Theodore Roosevelt.
James Whistler.
30: In “The Significance of the Frontier in American History,” Frederick Jackson Turner claimed
the frontier had made Americans distinctive people.
the United States should expand its northern and southern borders into Canada and Mexico to create new frontier land.
the western wars between whites and Indians were a national disgrace.
most of the frontier land was of little practical use for Americans.
31: Before 1860, the traditional policy of the federal government was to regard Indians as
members of dependent states.
a natural enemy of the United States.
wards of the president of the United States.
32: In the 1850s, the United States policy of “concentration” for Indians
assigned all tribes to their own defined reservations.
affirmed and continued the previous federal treatment of Indians.
had many benefits for both whites and Indians.
reduced conflicts between whites and Indians.
33: The decimation of American buffalo herds of the late nineteenth century
destroyed the ability of Plains Indians to resist the advance of white settlers.
was accelerated by Indian tribes who killed large numbers of buffalo to sell to white Americans.
both A and B
neither A nor B
34: The Sand Creek Massacre of 1864
involved the killing of Indian women and children.
saw the death of Chief Black Kettle.
was carried out by George Custer.
all of the above
35: The 1876 Battle of Little Big Horn
took place in Wyoming.
saw the destruction of the entire Seventh Cavalry.
was a short-lived Indian victory.
marked the start of the prolonged warfare in the Dakotas.
36: The Indian leader who said, “I am tired. My heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever,” was
The Indian leader who said, “I am tired. My heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever,” was
Sitting Bull.
Chief Joseph.
Crazy Horse
37: In 1886, the end of formal warfare between the United States and American Indians was marked by the surrender of
Mangas Colorados.
Sitting Bull.
38: In 1890, the “Ghost Dance”
was a spiritual revival among Plains Indians.
honored all the Indians who had died in battle with white Americans.
marked the resumption of hostilities by Plains Indians.
all of the above
39: In 1890, at Wounded Knee, South Dakota
Plains Indians mounted their last major attack on white Americans.
the U.S. Seventh Cavalry massacred two hundred Indians.
the Sioux attempted to leave their reservation.
all of the above
40: The Dawes Act of 1887
was intended to preserve traditional Indian culture.
denied United States’ citizenship to landowning Indian adults.
was viewed by the United States government as a plan to save the Indians
ended the United States government’s effort to assimilate Indian tribes.
41: In the late nineteenth century, the western agricultural economy
saw the railroad become the most important factor in its development.
saw the Plains states experience a drought during the 1870s.
began a long and steady improvement after 1880.
saw the development of massive irrigation projects.
42: In the late nineteenth century, fences for Plains farms were usually made from
barbed wire.
43: In the late nineteenth century, in regards to western agriculture
the prices paid for American farm goods rose after the 1880s.
the reality of farming was very much like its popular image with the public.
commercial farmers were not self-sufficient and made little effort to become so.
increasingly, more farmers owned the land on which they worked.
44: Which of the following was NOT a significant source of resentment for the late nineteenth-century farmers?
state governments
45: During the late nineteenth century, Plains farm life
was marked by active community life.
became increasingly profitable for most.
was generally admired by the growing urban public.
often lacked access to the outside world.
46: In his writings during the late 1800s, the popular author Hamlin Garland
romanticized the agrarian life in the West.
criticized western farmers for failing to develop a stable industry.
reflected the growing disillusionment of western farmers.
argued the Plains should be abandoned by Americans.

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