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History 2493 Chapter 17 Practice Quiz


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1: In the late nineteenth century, industry in the United States
obtained the bulk of its raw materials from Central and South America.
faced a growing shortage of laborers.
saw the federal government eager to assist in its growth.
lacked adequate capital to expand the domestic market.
2: Who among the following did NOT make significant contributions to communication technology?
Cyrus Field
Charles F. Brush
Alexander Graham Bell
Guglielmo Marconi
3: Prior to the Civil War, the steel industry in the United States
saw little development.
emerged as an important supplier for railroad construction.
emerged as an important supplier for railroad construction.
resulted in the construction of large ocean freighters.
4: The process of making steel developed by Henry Bessemer
included blowing air through molten iron.
involved adding ingredients to molten iron.
both A and B
neither A nor B
5: The open-hearth process of making steel
was replaced by the Bessemer process.
was first done in the United States.
produced small quantities of high-grade steel.
made the production of large dimension pieces possible.
6: In the United States, the steel industry first emerged in
In the United States, the steel industry first emerged in
Pennsylvania and Ohio.
Illinois and Indiana.
New Jersey and New York.
7: All of the following cities became important centers for steel production EXCEPT
Pittsburgh.
Chicago.
Atlanta.
Birmingham.
8: In the late nineteenth century, the transportation needs of the American steel industry directly contributed to the development of all of the following EXCEPT
the automobile company.
steam engine technology.
freighters on the Great Lakes.
the Pennsylvania Railroad.
9: The first significant oil production in the United States occurred in
Ohio.
Texas.
California.
Pennsylvania.
10: In the 1870s, the “internal combustion engine” was developed in
Europe.
the United States.
Asia.
Africa.
11: In 1917, automobile production in the United States
was the nation’s largest industry.
saw Henry Ford build the first practical gasoline-powered car.
saw five million cars on American roads.
was almost nonexistent.
12: Orville and Wilbur Wright’s first successful airplane flight in 1903
took place near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
used an internal combustion engine
crashed while attempting to land
A and B
13: In 1900, the emergence of research laboratories in American corporations
occurred as federal funding for research greatly expanded.
led to a diversification of research interests.
developed similar research goals as in Europe.
was deemed necessary as few American university laboratories existed.
14: Who among the following was NOT significantly associated with the steel industry?
James J. Hill
Andrew Carnegie
J. Pierpont Morgan
Henry Clay Frick
15: A key to Henry Ford’s success in mass production of automobiles was to
use welds instead of rivets to speed production.
reduce the size of his labor force.
use interchangeable parts.
train highly skilled workers.
16: In 1929, the base price of a Ford Model T was
$290.
$470.
$630.
$950.
17: In the late nineteenth century, the railroad industry in the United States
included the nation’s largest businesses.
saw Congress outlaw railroad combinations
relied on government subsidies for its growth
led to the nation’s first corporations.
18: During the late nineteenth century, the growth of large corporations was helped by
sales of company stock to the public.
“limited liability” laws.
both A and B
neither A nor B
19: The business structure of Carnegie Steel was a good example of
vertical integration
horizontal integration.
both A and B
neither A nor B
20: The business structure of Standard Oil was a good example of
vertical integration.
horizontal integration.
both A and B
neither A nor B
21: To John D. Rockefeller, the great “curse” of business in the late nineteenth century was
government regulation.
cutthroat competition.
the income tax.
the corporate tax
22: In the American business community at the end of the nineteenth century
one percent of businesses controlled one-third of all manufacturing.
most corporations had achieved stability through “pool” arrangements.
federal reforms of corporations had ended the most predatory business practices
most states had made it illegal for one corporation to buy another one.
23: In the late nineteenth century, most American business millionaires
began their careers from positions of wealth.
came from financially humble origins.
were living examples of “self-made men.”
had made their fortune in the railroad industry.
24: The social theory of Social Darwinism
argued the new industrial economy was limiting the potential for individual wealth.
contended that ruthless corruption may be necessary in the attainment of wealth
was created by Charles Darwin to explain industrial economies.
promoted the idea that capitalism offered all people a chance for great wealth.
25: In the late nineteenth century, Social Darwinists argued that people who failed economically in the United States did so because
they had not received a college education.
racism and other prejudices held them back.
racism and other prejudices held them back.
business wealth was concentrated into the hands of a few.
26: In the late nineteenth century, the first and most important promoter of Social Darwinism was
Herbert Spencer.
Horatio Alger.
Russell Conwell.
Jacob Riis.
27: According to the ideas expressed by Andrew Carnegie in his Gospel of Wealth,
successful businessmen had every right to live as they pleased.
only pious Americans would prosper.
it was the “Christian duty” of every American become wealthy.
the rich had great responsibilities to society.
28: In his books, Horatio Alger
offered true accounts of poor Americans who had become wealthy.
took issue critical with the ideas of Social Darwinism.
emphasized the value of personal character in business.
criticized child labor in American industry
29: The late nineteenth century sociologist Lester Frank Ward
believed that human intelligence, not natural selection, shaped society.
believed that government intervention in society would be harmful
sought to apply Darwinian laws to human society.
argued that people could do little to alter the economic stratification of society.
30: The late nineteenth century, Daniel De Leon
created the ideas of laissez-faire.
founded the Socialist Labor Party in the United States.
argued that large corporations were ultimately of benefit to American workers.
led the American Federation of Labor.
31: In the late nineteenth century, the social writer Henry George argued in favor of
taxing only the richest Americans.
a single land tax to replace all other taxes.
government efforts to increase land values.
abolishing all taxes.
32: Edward Bellamy’s 1888 book, Looking Backward
described America as being destroyed in the future by concentrated wealth.
promoted the virtues of economic competition.
imagined an ideal future in which all corporations were combined into one great trust.
accepted the necessity of class divisions in a capitalist economy.
33: In the late nineteenth century, due to the growth of industrial capitalism, American workers
saw a rise in their standard of living.
experienced a loss in their control over their own work
both A and B
neither A nor B
34: During the 1870s and 1880s, most of the immigrants to the United States came from
Italy and the Slavic countries.
Great Britain and northern Europe.
Poland, Hungary and Russia.
Japan and China.
35: Until its repeal in 1885, the Labor Contract Law
discouraged immigration from non-European countries.
discouraged immigration from non-European countries.
put many new immigrants in debt to American businessmen.
was an attempt to reform American business practices.
36: In the late nineteenth century, organized labor failed to make great gains for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
tensions between ethnic and racial groups divided the work force.
labor unions faced powerful and wealthy corporations.
state and federal laws to protect the rights of workers did not exist.
major labor organizations represented only a small percentage of the industrial work force
37: In 1900, in regards to the work conditions in American factories,
workers generally controlled the pace of production.
laborers could expect to work at least sixty hours a week.
job security for industrial workers had increased since 1865.
while safety conditions were poor, mechanization reduced the overall rate of accidents.
38: During the late nineteenth century, child labor in the United States
increased significantly since 1865.
was unregulated by laws in most states.
saw more children working in factories than in agriculture
all of the above
39: The Molly Maguires were a militant
labor union in the coal industry.
anti-immigration organization.
woman suffrage organization.
anarchist group.
40: The great railroad strike of 1877
began in the West and spread East.
saw the federal government refuse to intervene.
was launched in response to a wage cut.
saw organized labor gain its first major victory in the United States
41: The Knights of Labor
was primarily a trade union.
did not allow women to join
began as a secret fraternal organization.
focused its efforts on improving wages and reducing hours.
42: The Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor were divided by their positions on
immediate versus long-term objectives.
separate craft unions versus one big union.
modern capitalism.
all of the above
43: Samuel Gompers was the leader of the
American Federation of Labor.
Molly Maguires.
Knights of Labor.
Congress of Industrial Organization.
44: The Haymarket Square riot of 1886
The Haymarket Square riot of 1886
resulted in the conviction and execution of several anarchists.
took place in Indianapolis.
resulted in a strike at the McCormick Harvester Company.
45: During the late nineteenth century, anarchists in the United States
were relatively peaceful.
were linked with violence in the mind of the public.
both A and B
neither A nor B
46: In what industry did the Homestead strike of 1892 occur?
steel
railroad
meatpacking
coal
47: Which of the following events did NOT occur during the Homestead Strike of 1892?
Henry Frick shut down the plant in an attempt to destroy the Amalgamated union.
The entire Pennsylvania National Guard was ordered to protect strikebreakers.
Hundred of guards hired by Homestead were defeated in a deadly battle with strikers.
Hundred of guards hired by Homestead were defeated in a deadly battle with strikers.
48: Eugene Debs played a leading role in what labor event?
Homestead strike
Pullman strike
Haymarket Square riot
all of the above
49: The Pullman strike of 1894 began when George Pullman, owner of the company,
ordered rail workers to move into company-owned housing.
referred to workers as his “children.”
cut wages by twenty-five percent due to a slumping economy
refused to implement an eight-hour work day.
50: The Pullman strike of 1894
saw the president of the United States order federal troops to break the strike.
was ultimately successful for the strikers.
had little effect on rail transportation throughout the nation.
ended when George Pullman dropped his demand that workers live in company housing.

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